22 January, 2020

Urban & Peri-Urban Gardens: A Bigger Picture

Essentially, I teach about urban and peri-urban food production. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) defines peri-urban agriculture as "agriculture practices within and around cities which compete for resources (land, water, energy, labor) that could also serve other purposes to satisfy the requirements of the urban population." The FAO is an excellent source for data and publications for research. The data urban and peri-urban farmers/gardeners need is either not produced in the the United States, or, when produced is frequently no more than an advertisement for chemical fertilizer and chemical weed mitigation.

The FAO, in “Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture” offers the challenge of supplying nutritionally adequate and safe food to city dwellers is substantial. Accomplishing this task under conditions of growth and congestion demands that policy-makers seize opportunities for integrating resource management and planning efforts, understanding potential linkages between rural and urban areas, and anticipating the changing needs of a country's citizens - both rural and urban. Part of the reason for the observed growth in UPA is due to its adaptability and mobility compared with rural agriculture. As cities expand physically, the frontiers between urban, peri-urban and rural activity blur and merge, presenting opportunities for beneficial linkages.

These gardens/agriculture land, in the peri-urban setting are often in competition for other projects as bits and pieces of open land, not already in use, comprise a diminishing percentage of the urban landscape. Peri-urban land, falls in the continuum between rural and urban, having varying similarities and differences along that continuum.

Peri-urban is that agricultural production that is closest to urban centers and more distant from rural tracts. While offering the chance to eat fresh vegetables and fruits, it is more difficult to grow and without the cooperation of the community around the growing area, can make growing healthy food impossible. Yet, the lure of having locally produced vegetables and fruit offers many advantages to the urban population in terms of taste and nutrition by virtue of the freshness of the produce.

Peri-urban gardening may be complimented with chickens and their eggs or goats and their milk, but the introduction of animals into the urban landscape can often bring a host of problems that are not found in a plant based operation. One of the biggest challenges in the coming years will be how can we grow sufficient amounts of food for the central city at a price that is affordable and yet high enough to support the farmer and the farmer's family. The face of a gardener/farmer, worldwide, is the face of a woman, so these questions are formed knowing that wage discrimination against women workers has been a constant problem in our culture and will need to be addressed as our food production changes in the coming years.

The concept of the peri-urban garden – and the urban garden, though at a more limited level – can only prove to be beneficial if these issues are confronted and solved:

  1. Water supplies are not contaminated by the urban/peri-urban farms, especially, but not limited to, those growing animals in addition to vegetables and fruit.
  2. Remediation of water supplies on site to clean the water to certifiable standards.
  3. Air quality is not compromised by dust or smell.
  4. Garden waste remains on site to be composted.
  5. Gardens take in plant waste for composting.
  6. Gardeners learn how to deal with vermin in a socially accepted manner or a wholesale change in society's concept of acceptable vermin damage.
  7. Inner city gardens might make a better contribution by growing mushrooms.
  8. Food will be fresher allowing for more nutrition and food security providing producers keep food properly until sold, by observing sanitation best practices. If not followed, the close proximity of people, animals and microbial presence will make this much more of a challenge in the future.
  9. Farmers are allowed to have multi-year leases – or, better yet, ownership – of the land they farm on, giving them the impetus to keep the garden clean from diseases and infestations.

The inner city, with skyscrapers, presents the most challenge for farmers. As one moves towards the outer city, with fewer floors between the garden and the sun, growing food generally becomes easier. It is probably not a stretch to assume that, as one moves further and further from the central city that gardens can be more productive – however, one can also speculate that the further you get from city center, the number of buyers close at hand diminishes as well.

Farmers already are producing and selling their goods along this line. They harvest their products for sale and spend Wednesdays or some other day at a farmers' market, direct selling their goods to consumers. Of course this is out in the urban, if not rural lands. These farmers' markets are the start of this decentralization of our food production and have proven successful and desirable for consumers and cities alike.

All these farms, from the urban and peri-urban areas are more likely to be smaller than the farms we have today while production levels must remain constant or increase. In addition, these farms, will specialize in certain products and diversify the goods they bring to market. Like
  1. Aquaculture – growing fish for market, using their waste for fertilizer for vegetables etc.
  2. Urban beekeeping, supplementing honey, wax and pollination services.
  3. and mycology – growing mushrooms which will be in a greater demand as science shows us all the benefits of different varities.
While our food supply will strain to provide enough calories for the populace at the same time it will provide a variety of foods that are uncommon today. Farmers all along the continuum will strive to find products they can feature and draw in customers in addition to the common products easily found in the market.

The positive effects that can be gained from an urban and/or peri-urban food supply include the following:
  • providing green spaces throughout the city, even to the inner downtown city
  • green space preservation will also enhance carbon sequestration – all food production done correctly sequesters carbon
  • reduce the heat island effect that is common in our cities already
  • recycling of gray water conserving water and reduce waste

At the same time, unwanted inputs will need to be dealt with, including:
  • chemical and physical of roadway exhaust
  • heavy metal residues
  • soil and water pollution including industrial chemicals, antibiotics and heavy-metals. Among others.

Obviously, inner city farmers, more than others, will be faced with a variety of waste material that is not common today. All waste products that can be safely used in composting and other natural breakdown of material, will be in abundance, however, the same can be said about materials we don't want which may be just as ubiquitous.

In addition to those growers striving to make an income, there will be average citizens that will still wish to grow there own. From the 1890's growing some of your own food in the city has been a part of the American life style. The modest beginning in 1890's, in the wake of the 1890's Depression that a formal community garden emerged, native to the United States. It was in Detroit, using vacant lots, the city government gave the laid off workers a chance to feed their families.

In that same era, in the 1890's, community gardens were created in San Francisco and Boston – both still active gardening cities to this date. New York had its first gardens in the early 1900's. And it too has remained a gardening city!

In World War 1, at the behest of the Wilson administration, Americans began to build their “Liberty Gardens” using their front lawns and other unused land to grow a 24% share of the food grown in the US, creating a tradition of growing your own food close to home. The term "community garden" came into use to describe collectively grown gardens and gardens with individual plots during World War I. The gardens opened the idea of city gardens/community gardens and the concept has been a part of the woof and warp of American life since that time.

The Roosevelt administration in WW2 wanted the food growing to stay in the hands of professionals and discouraged amateurs from planting their “Victory Gardens.” The populace would not have it and went about putting in driveway gardens, front yard gardens and parkway gardens and finally the Roosevelt administration succumbed and thew in with the people and Victory Gardens became a part of the American legend of the World Wars. These gardens were successful in producing healthy food for consumption for the folks at home – freeing up the traditional supplies of vegetables for shipping to the front. By May 1943 (we didn't go to war until December 1942), there were 18 million gardens producing food, which, along with rationing, allowed the US to ship food out to the war zones where many farms had been destroyed by bombing or other acts of war removing the farmers from the war zone and eliminating their ability to feed the populations in the conflict zone.

These Victory Gardens were a step towards urban gardens. Harking back to the community plots of 1890s, cities began to look for unused land to allow citizens to grow their own food for a nominal rental fee that paid for water use and sometimes fencing. Los Angeles has something more than 90 active community gardens, most started during the administration of Mayor Tom Bradley, showcasing LA's diverse cultures and culinary traditions.

Los Angeles' demand for community gardens has far outpaced the demand. In the 1980's, when I got my first community garden, the wait list was about two weeks and they gave me 4 plots to work in! Nowadays, I hear of people waiting years for a plot.

In the community gardens in Los Angeles, you pay an annual fee and are required to do a set number of community work hours in the garden. When I got my first plot in Ocean View Farms, plots were about 14 feet square and laid out on a slope facing the ocean, which is a few miles away, providing full sun exposure to almost all the plots. In conjunction with the Master Gardener program, UC Davis has written a beginning gardener's curriculum which is taught multiple times all over the LA Area – I teach two per year (Spring and Fall) for a nominal fee, to get people off on the right start in the community garden experience.




david 

07 January, 2020

Home Fruit Tree Care Workshop!




Dorsett Golden Apple,
image from
Trees of Antiquity, a wonderful California based nursery
we have been privileged to work with .
  • Do you have one or a couple of fruiting trees you care for? 
  • Are you just getting the bug to have these wonderful food producers in your life? 
  • Not sure what to do or when to do it? 
  • What kind of tools do I need? 
  • Do Fruit trees need a lot of water? 


This two hour workshop will show you the tools you need and how to use them on your trees for longest life and and most opportune health! Remember, some of these trees will last a very long time and mistakes of the past will be visible to you in the future!

  • David King will show you the methods used and the latest news in fruit tree culture.
  • Handouts help you take the information home and  add to your knowledge.
  • Your questions answered! 
The Deets:

January 25th,  1:30 PM to 3:30PM
In The Learning Garden, located on the campus of Venice High School,
                                                enter off Walgrove Avenue
$20 at the gate, or prepay via PayPal at paypal.me/greenteach
More info needed?  David King 310.722.3656 

david



03 January, 2020

Quarantine On Citrus in California

Citrus trees in Southern California are being devastated by an aphid spread disease that is known as "Citrus Greening disease" or "Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. It is fatal to infected trees and is easily spread by the Asian Citrus psyllid (a 'psyllid' is also known as "jumping plant lice" and are typically host-specific) and is raising havoc with citrus farmers in the United States, primarily in California and Florida, our two most prolific citrus growing states. 

You know what a "big fan" I am of the USDA, but in this case I am quoting them and asking you to look at their website - URL following. From the USDA Website, (https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/resources/pests-diseases/save-our-citrus/soc-citrus-diseases): 

I'm quoting from that website: "Citrus greening is one of the most serious citrus plant diseases in the world. It is also known as Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow dragon disease. Once a tree is infected, there is no cure. While the disease poses no threat to humans or animals, it has devastated millions of acres of citrus crops throughout the United States and abroad.

"Citrus greening disease was first reported to have occurred in Asia during the late 1800s and the disease has already caused devastation in Asia, Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Brazil.

"Named for its green, misshapen fruit, citrus greening disease has now killed millions of citrus plants in the southeastern United States and is threatening to spread across the entire country. See all of the affected areas.

"Citrus greening is spread by a disease-infected insect, the Asian citrus psyllid, and has put the future of America’s citrus at risk. Infected trees produce fruits that are green, misshapen and bitter, unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. Most infected trees die within a few years.

"The Asian citrus psyllid, which spreads citrus greening, is no bigger than the head of a pin. The infected insect spreads the disease as it feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees. Once the Asian citrus psyllid picks up the disease, it carries it for the rest of its life. Citrus greening is then spread by moving infected plants and plant materials such as bud wood and even leaves."


California faces some pretty tough challenges in this matter, but has started, appropriately, by first imposing a quarantine around affected trees. People in contact with diseased  trees should endeavor to not spread the disease, by carrying infected fruit out of the quarantine area. This is an "organic" approach in that nothing is being sprayed with any chemicals (we have none that seem to affect this critter). This is a good place to start. However, more people have to be informed to NOT spread the psyllid. 

These are samples of the disease infecting a citrus. The mottled yellow that is not uniform throughout the plant. Check your citrus for evidence like this. Of course, "yellowed" leaves are also evidence of too much or too little water, but this yellowing is much different - this yellowing has no uniform pattern - with watering problems, you will see brown tips with yellow lower on the leaf. But it will not appear so radically different from other leaves - note these leaves do not show a distinct pattern. That is key. 

Keep a lookout and act quickly if you see this problem. I would also contact your local county agent if you suspect a problem. 

We all need to do this. Consistently. 

david



30 December, 2019

Start The New Garden Year Off Right!

What To Do And When To Do It makes its 2020 debut! Still $20 at the gate! Ten to Noon, January 4th in our classroom or perhaps out in a part of the garden. Whatever happens, we'll be there and hope to see you there! 

Just a few different seed houses to peruse this time of year
before the rain stops and we can begin to plant again.
Always, your questions (about gardening, at least) answered! 
Dress warmly and be ready to get your garden underway for 2020! 

Got a question or want to pay with PayPal - greenteach@gmail.com! Thanks!

Happy New Year!
david

13 December, 2019

Class Notes for December 8 and 15

Rogers Red Grape





Urban Food Production meets this Sunday, December 8th at The Learning Garden at regular class time, (1:00 PM). The garden is on the campus of Venice High School - which is a 24 acre campus. We are the Northwest corner at the intersection of  Venice Blvd and Walgrove Avenue - our entrance gate is on Walgrove. 

Parking is on the street only. Do NOT park on the high school campus. Gates may be unlocked, but the staff will leave before our class is out and lock your car in. You will not get it back until 7:00 AM Monday. They are merciless!

Dress for foul weather. It will probably be cold and wet.

Coming by bus, the bus stop is at Walgrove. There is one Big Blue Bus that stops here on weekends and there are two Metro buses that stop here (33 and 733). Schedules on Sunday are lousy.

I will have a snack to share, if you like, bring your own snack share

Email or call with  questions. Please note, due to the amount of robocalls I get, you'll need to leave a message and I'll return your call.

Thank you, see you tomorrow, rain or shine!

david

NB This was supposed to post last Friday, not this Friday. Human error.
d

02 December, 2019

What To Do - December's Version! Dec. 7th!

Some huge runner beans given to SLOLA. They are relatives
to the Red Runner beans, but I don't even know what color
the flowers will be. Did I say these were "huge beans?"
DECEMBER'S WHAT TO DO CLASS HAS BEEN CANCELED. WE WILL NOT HAVE A CLASS IN DECEMBER, BUT WILL RETURN THE 4TH OF JANUARY 2020 AT OUR REGULAR TIME AND REGULAR GARDENING FUN.

The weather was against us, but when we found out we would NOT have power (ie for heat?), we elected to cancel. See us at the next What To Do or on 21 December at sundown (about 5:30 PM) for the Winter Solstice program we are famous for. Bring some kind of snack for everyone to share and join us. Dress warmly!
Thanks to everyone! Hope to see you around the Garden sometime very soon!

david



Huanglongbing Disease Seminar - stop the Asian Citrus Psyllid!

This webinar has come to my attention and I encourage anyone who has citrus or wants citrus to register. This disease is virulent and is destroying citrus plants in California and Florida. Florida is fighting the disease with genetic modification while California has chosen to deal with it in a more sane manner. The first line of defense is knowledge and the second line is to prevent the spread of the insect that carries the disease and thus contain it while more research - hopefully - will help us understand how to deal with this VERY difficult pest on one of our most valuable crops.

If you are growing citrus now or intend to grow citrus in the future, make this a priority. Here is the UCANR post on the seminar: 


We hope by now most people have heard about and are aware of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), a small brown insect that carries a deadly citrus disease called huanglongbing (HLB), threatening all backyard citrus trees as well as the statewide citrus industry.

This insect feeds on newly developed leaves of all varieties of citrus trees and can spread the bacteria that causes HLB. The HLB disease can kill a citrus tree in as little as 5 years and there is so far no cure or remedy.

Learn more about ACP and HLB by joining the free UC Ag Experts Talk on December 5 from 3:00pm to 4:30pm. Dr. Elizabeth Grafton-Cardwell, Director of Lindcove REC and Research Entomologist at UC Riverside, will address monitoring for these insects and the disease, as well as what Californian residents and backyard gardeners can do if they're in an HLB-infected area.


For PCAs and commercial growers, a separate webinar will take place on December 4, from 3:00pm to 4:30pm. 
https://ucanr.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_DckhbNtyTcWFaES6JPloXAfor the PCA and commercial grower webinar.