12 June, 2018

Still Some Space: BIOLGY X 498.10 - Greener Gardens: Sustainable Garden Practice

This course is taught by yours truly and Orchid Black. We've done this course for over ten years and it is always a blast! Many students report this is one of their favorite classes to take, and we love teaching it!  I just checked and there are still some spaces open. Class meetings take place in 325 Botany with three field trips. Our presentations cover a lot of perspectives on growing some of your own food AND saving water and other valuable resources. It turns out, if we only garden with the whole world in mind, we easily reach a new paradigm that not only feeds us, but also begins to correct the problems of our current lifestyles. I've got a bunch of new stuff up my sleeve and we CAN change the world starting right now!

Orchid Black and David King, co-instructors for this course
outstanding in a field. Not sure whose field it is.

The catalog copy on our course: 
Sustainability is today's buzzword and many people seek to create a lifestyle with a more favorable impact on the environment. From home and school gardens, to commercial sites, our gardens present the perfect place to start. Designed for horticulture students, gardening professionals, educators, and home gardeners, this course focuses on turning your green thumb into a "greener" garden. Topics include composting, irrigation, water harvesting, water-wise plants, eating and growing local produce, recycling, and moving away from a consumptive, non-sustainable lifestyle when choosing materials and tools. Includes weekend field trips to the Los Angeles River to see our relationship with water in the L.A. basin, as well as the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, focusing not only on California native plants but also on water-conserving planting design. Students also visit the John T. Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies at Cal Poly Pomona, which advances the principles of environmentally sustainable living through education, research, demonstration, and community outreach.

Teaching and using gardening Practices that are sustainable, this course covers composting, irrigation, water harvesting, as well as weekend field trips to LA's sustainable gardens.

This is an elective course in both the Horticulture and Sustainability certificate programs. 

25 May, 2018

What To Do In The SoCal Garden, Saturday, June 2!

I teach a monthly garden class at The Learning Garden, on the campus of Venice High School, the first Saturday of every month, 10 to noon.  We actually meet in the garden to talk about gardening, so you get to see first hand my mistakes and my triumphs. I'm always experimenting with different plants and ways to increase the harvest or make my life easier.  While gardening is an art as much as any art in a museum, it is never definitively done - we never get to hang it on the wall.

Garbanzo beans 'on the hoof' ready for harvesting and threshing!
We'll talk a little about this workhorse of a plant and get into some
better watering habits!

In a way, it's that undefined time in the future that makes gardening such a vibrant art form - beyond getting to eat your finished project - if the bugs and weather have cooperated with you. There are so many things out of your control - but we do eat!  We have successful gardens!  I'll show you my experience of over 50 years of gardening and you can benefit from my failures! 

June is one of the best months for gardens in Southern California! Warm, but not too hot, makes June the perfect month to finish getting your summer garden in - if you haven't already. I'm harvesting the last of my winter crops, which opens up a lot more planting space for even more summer crops. Harvesting garbanzos, garlic and other crops, makes space for more peppers, okra, tomatoes and beans! We are doing both; harvesting and planting! And ideas on what to do with all this harvest!  

We do it all - 10 to noon, June 2nd - at The Learning Garden (enter from Walgrove Avenue on the west side of campus).  $20 at the door or $20 prepaid with PayPal.  Your money refunded if unsatisfactory - although I've yet to see any unsatisfactory money!  It's a steal and usually you go home with either seeds or plants - sometimes both!  


22 May, 2018

Buckets of Beans!

I've got three gallons of fresh green beans to give away.  

"How'dja know it was three gallons?" a friend of mine asked. 

"It's easy; see that bucket?  It's a three gallon bucket and it's pretty full!" 

Three gallon bucket full of freshly picked
green beans.  That's three gallons of beans in my book!
I grow beans almost as an afterthought, because I'm much more caught up in tomatoes, cucumbers and other typical Summer food fare. My favorites are yellow and purple beans. The purple beans because they will germinate in cool, wet soil (other beans will have poor germination, if they sprout at all, and will not produce much earlier than if you had waited - unless, of course you put down row covers or do other ground warming techniques). 

The yellow beans are a delight for pickling, I've pickled them for years, the yellow beans make a lovely visual in the jar and on sandwiches or in salads. 

But I needed an exercise for students, so I grabbed a packet of Slenderette Bush Beans from Renee's Gardens (they are sold locally in Orchard Supply Hardware - OSH) as well as by mail order. I had never grown these before, but here they were and in a pinch, we had twelve seeds in the ground and the exercise was complete. I forgot about them pretty much until this last weekend...

Walking by the plot, I realized there was a tremendous number of beans on these plants! It was, by any standards, an impressive crop! I came back later in the day and, leaving behind a number of beans that were not yet up to size, I filled my old bucket in no time at all. 

I learned from Renee Shepherd - the Renee in "Renee's Seeds" that these beans are an heirloom bean that has been around for more than 30 years -  being a selection of an old Dutch variety called Slankette. They are crisp and sweet and would be delightful steamed with a pinch of salt, pepper and a little butter. They are great raw! But they would be a tough sell for pickling because they are a slender bean and packing would be more difficult. Which is why I'm canvassing my neighborhood for folks who would eat a gallon or so of green beans!  

The beans on these plants are very easy to see and pick. With some bean varieties, you must pick them from two different directions to find the beans and even then, when you next pick you'll still see beans you missed from the last picking (another reason I like the purple and yellow beans - you can actually see them). These are not hard to find as well, even though they are green, the beans are in clusters and easily seen and harvested.

This was only the first picking and I purposely did not pick beans that were not up to size and so there are a lot of beans I'll be picking tomorrow! In addition, there were still a lot of flowers in bloom, so these three gallons may well be the first go round. 

I'd give Slenderette Bush Beans an A+ for flavor and productivity. I'd recommend you try them - especially if you are short on space! They are a fast growing variety, which means you ought to easily get more than just one planting of them in our long summers.


02 May, 2018

May: Growing Up In Your Garden

A good number of summer vegetables are largish plants and can easily eat up a lot more than their share of the square footage of your garden. For gardeners without a lot of space – or gardeners growing in containers – growing plants up is the best solution.

Many of us are familiar with the tomato cages for sale right now – these are an attempt to “grow things up.” Sadly most of them are not constructed with enough oomph to even last through one whole tomato season. There are better choices.

There are a number of plants that will NOT grow up no matter what you do, but just looking at the plant are there clues that show us which plants can be grown up? Yes!

Summer Plants That Can Be Trellised

  • Climbing beans – the seed package will tell you they are “climbing,” or, if you got them without a package, when the second pair of true leaves show up, the space between the pairs of leaves will be much longer than you'd expect. That part of the stem should be a couple of inches – if it's closer to a foot, you have a climber! Beans that are called “Runner Beans” are climbers.
  • Almost ALL melons – there are very few that are not abler to climb and those few are most likely a modern day hybrid and will be noted on the packet.
  • Most squashes – the exception will be the summer squashes – the winter squashes have long rambling vines that can be tied up easily. They need a sturdy trellis.
  • And while it may not be obvious, almost all tomatoes. When shopping for tomatoes, you often see them labeled “Determinate (or D)” and Indeterminate(or I). They are just what the words describe – Determinate tomatoes grow to a determinated height and no farther. Indeterminates don't have an “off” button – they keep growing as long as the weather suits them. The Indeterminate plants are really vines that we try to make stand up.

The tomato cages on the left, fold flat in the winter (or can do time as pea cages) while the “tomato ladders” below are more compact and seem to be a lot more sturdy. Cages are $55 for four, while the ladders are $50 for three (both plus shipping, so they end up being an investment). In my experience both of these are a better investment than the measly round things that are available locally. The circle cages do not actually work unless you help them with a sturdy pole helping them stay upright

Both of these structures - plus a bunch of other alternatives are available from Gardener's Supply - I have the ladders and I think they are about 20 plus years old. They are problem free and however much they cost, if they hang around for 20 plus years, that's what I would call a deal.

Concrete Reinforcing Wire is a real champ at this trellising thing! I have several pieces that came to me via a garage sale - I forget how much they cost, but with hunk of this stuff and some garden stakes (about 6' tall) to secure them, you have a deal!  

The large openings thru the mesh are big enough to get a hand thru easily – and said hand back out while holding a tomato. These can be used a number of ways. Just using it as a grid pattern, and stake it with some robust stakes, tomatoes or other climbing plants – even ones of some size like squashes and pumpkins, cucumbers, melons and almost any other climbing plant, will not conquer this wire! It is sturdy enough to bend it into shapes – you can even make a covered walkway with this stuff. Done right, you can walk under the leaves of your squash plant with the fruits hanging down around your head! It is magical.

Using them this way, storage is a cinch! One small space where they can be pushed out of the way against the wall and you're in like Flynn. Or, leave them in the garden and grow peas up them over the winter!

The First Nations of America had this trellis thing totally figured out. They grew corn and planted beans at the base of their corn. The beans used the corn to climb on while the beans “fixed” nitrogen in the soil for the corn (a high nitrogen user). Finally they planted squash at the base of the plants and the large leaves of the squashes shielded the soil from the rays of the sun, as living mulch, preventing water loss from evaporation and keeping the roots of the garden cooler in these very hot, dry southwestern climates. This type of garden is often times called the “Three Sisters Garden” and is a masterful example of using plants together in a symbiotic arrangement.

Looking at the plant – even a young plant – look for spaces between the leaves. Most food plants conform to a couple of growing patterns. Put on your “Botany Hat” cause here we go!

Each leaf comes off the stem at a place called a “node.” Nodes are important in many ways, but for today, we will consider them as important growth centers for the plant. If these nodes are close together, it indicates a plant that is not a good climber. If they are far apart, it is a good candidate. The space between the nodes is called the “internode” - how hard can that be? Long internodes mean good climber. If you understand this, then the one or two summer squashes that you can grow on a trellis will be easy to spot while the other summer squashes, all bunched up on the ground will be obviously a plant to leave on the ground.

If your trellis is wimpy, be prepared to repair it. The lima bean “Christmas” pulled down two trellises before I built one out of pallet wood and when that came down, I gave up on Christmas Limas! And that was a bean, imagine a squash or a cucumber plant?

Climbers are not only a common-sense solution to a space problem, they can make a wonderful design statement in your garden that brings your garden to a whole other artistic development – not only do you get more food from the same space, but your upright pieces in the garden can be painted to add additional color and provide more interest. Instead of tying plants up with only twine – you can use colorful ribbon to tie plants up adding more color to feast your eyes on!

Eggplants, peppers, okra and corn are not good trellising projects.

Plants that climb often have their harvest over a longer period of time. Plants that are smaller, officially known as "determinate (because their size is determined by their genes), don't. If you want to eat all summer long, grow pole beans. If you want to pickle or can your beans, plant bush varieties so you get them all ripe about the same time for processing convenience. Keep these options in mind as you plant to control the food coming in from your garden. Keep a log of what went where so you can avoid planting tomatoes into a space that was planted in nitrogen fixing plants. Tomatoes, growing the presence of nitrogen will not set fruit until they have burnt it up. In our climate this is not that big of deal – unless the fruit set holds until cooler weather had set in.

Take a moment and assess your summer garden. If you are in a very hot place with adequate water, consider planting your summer veggies a little closer together for complementary shade. Try not to shade the leaves, those need sun. But if you can keep the sun from the soil and the roots, you might find you have a better, longer harvest. Mind you, this would be in addition to mulching, which you already do, right?

Remember the adage: The best fertilizer is the farmer's shadow and enjoy your moments just looking at your plants and all you have done!

May is the last really good month to get your summer garden in, after this it gets hotter and drier and it's tougher on you and the plants. It's lovely outside – you want to be outside anyway – get out there and get busy! Waiting will make your job harder and the plants less happy. The time is now! Carpe diem!

Start These In Containers
Start These In The Ground
Move to the Ground from Containers
Winter squash
More basil
More summer squash
Eggplant, peppers, okra,
squashes, summer first,
then winter later in the month


Zucchini and winter squash

David's Greek Salad

It might be a bit early to think of the tomato harvest, and my admonition is to not 'count your tomatoes until they are on the plate;' oh what the hell... It's so close we can almost taste it, right?

Close to equal amounts of fresh tomatoes and fresh cucumbers. Do not slice neatly, but quickly and crudely chunk them into more or less bite sized pieces. I will be using San Marzano tomatoes and Armenian cucumbers for most of these this year. I love it! Greek salad with Italian tomatoes and Armenian cukes! Life in America.
Olive oil – enough to generously coat each bite, not so much as to float anything
Pepper to taste
Small slices of red onion for a some zing (the Italian 'Torpedo,' or Tropea onions are one of my favorites) – we're just doing some 'zing' here. The onions should not be the main attraction.
Crushed dried oregano (I like the Greek oregano, remember?)
Homemade or a really good store bought feta cheese also cut into chunks.
Mix them all together with laughter; the actual order things are placed in the bowl is not all that important, it's a forgetful, or disorderly, cook's dream!

Serve with:
Homemade bread, herb tea or lemonade and good friends... outside dining if you can!

Change it up as availability of ingredients dictates.
Eat till you're full and take a nap in dappled sunshine!
*In a protected, shaded, location.

Just stay outta my hammock.  


27 April, 2018

This Changes Things!

Corn seeds - among the first seeds I collected for SLOLA -
the ear in front looks like Mohawk Red Bread...
A friend directed my attention, while I was still on my first cup of coffee no less, to a post on Facebook that portends bad news for seed savers.  Assuming that a post in a public forum like Facebook gives consent for it to be reproduced, from the page, Corn Culture, here is the post word for word:

Corn Culture
Warning: Seeds produced using hand pollinations are not necessarily immune to outcrossing! Recently I had some seed of a new and improved synthetic tested for the presence of transgene promoters 35s and NOS. These are the two most commonly used promoters for biotech corn. Seed of this population came from USDA and universities where hand pollination was always used for maintenance. During the process of formation hand pollination was used exclusively to cross each successive generation. Even with all of that effort and money spent, the population is contaminated with 35s (most commonly used with Bt transgenes). 1. It is not reasonable to assume that hand pollinated seed is not contaminated, and 2. It is important to have seed tested from time to time even if one is sure that it could not possibly be contaminated. Frustrating!
This is very sad news indeed. It means that we can no longer grow pure corn and feel certain that we have avoided GMO contamination without testing.  
I am even more angered that we failed in having the city of Los Angeles be declared a GMO Free Zone (2013-2014) - we would have had enough acreage in the city that would have prevented crossing accidents. I fault my simple-minded and naive attempt at politics with the failure. We were also absolutely unfunded and did all the copies and paperwork on our own dime, which limited how much money and publicity we were able to pour into the campaign. Now, in hindsight, our failure then shows our impotence and inability to fight with the monied and well-lawyered corporations, without professional help and funding!! I have often thought of going back to an LA Ban on GMOs, but the money issue prevents me and I've proven I don't have good "fund raising" sense.
But, in light of this, we HAVE to find a way to reinvigorate our campaign and run it this time with professionals and money. This cannot be a penny pinching process. We need professionals and people tuned into the process. 
"More will be revealed," they say.  Stay tuned.  If you are interested in corn, here is a link to a beautiful and well written book on corn that will open your eyes to this amazing plant and how it continues to mystify researchers with its own story.  And another reason we cannot allow our corn to be bastardized by the transgenic craze sweeping through our world today. 

20 April, 2018

Mea Culpa!

I started writing my blog in January 2007 and slacked off every year since.The first year, I was doing posts at a ferocious pace. Each year after there were fewer posts. By the time we get to 2017, my contributions were almost non-existent. My record became appallingly sparse.  

Writing a blog takes place in a vacuum. I admit I had a billion doubts that anyone was even reading the blog and more doubts that it was doing any good - there are, after all, more blogs about gardening than almost any other subject this side of sex. 

I gotta bring home the dog food! 
My very best dog, Mr Tre,
oversees my work and doesn't push me too
hard, except when it's time for his walk.
A friend challenged me to get back into the blog, put up new material and reinvigorate the pages with a new look and use the blog to get my writing back on schedule. I took the challenge.

So these last few months I published more articles, and I did some blog upgrading "under the hood" and above.  One thing that really impacted me, I realized in the past few years I had not been checking my blog inbox. I opened it for the first time in over three years and I was blown away with the number of "attaboys" I was getting and the sincere acknowledgements of the blog's usefulness that was there waiting for me to just open it up.

So. First off, thank you very much. You are very kind! 

Secondly, I apologise to the many people I failed to get back to in a timely fashion. 

And thirdly, I will try harder to win your praise and your readership by applying myself more regularly and more thoughtfully to this blog. I have lots of ideas to cover and I need to look back over all the communications from those readers who have had questions and address them in coming posts.

I want let you know, that currently the book almost halfway proofed in an ongoing effort to get it published. Posts on this blog are no longer actual parts of the book, but are extrapolated from the book and will be for the foreseeable future. I am never at loss for content, but I am constantly at loss for time.

Once again. Thank you! I shall endeavor to serve you with the information you need and desire to grow food in our Southern California Mediterranean Climate! 


03 April, 2018

Hard Seed Saving

Whenever there is a seed saving class, you see seeds divided into easy, moderately hard and hard - or some variation of that.  Easy seeds are defined with the least amount of brain power and the least effort - presumably 'hard' is the opposite of that.

That aint necessarily so.

Oftentimes the difference between easy and hard is simply the willingness to observe what's happening in your garden and use that knowledge to your advantage.  In small scale seed saving, there is a minimum of tools required (which I feel is a flaw, being an avid tool collector myself) and the techniques are fairly straight forward.  Corn is not, of itself that hard to save.  But our location, throughout Los Angeles makes it hard to save; someone somewhere has corn flowering the same time yours is!  The only way to save it without doubt is to pollinate it by hand.  I intend to cover that in the near future, so stay tuned!

Corn is wind pollinated - and so it pollinates nothing if no wind blows the pollen (from the boy flowers - the tassels) to the silks (aka the girl flowers) of other corn plants. The descendents of the European invaders are very uptight about keeping plants "pure."  That's what makes corn maddening to us.  It's hard to get that wind to blow only where you want it! 

There are ways to control corn pollen and get plants pollinated with only the genes you want.  This article is not about that.

The peoples who took corn from a sad little grass plant into the culinary powerhouse it s today, had a very different view of plants and plant breeding.  Isolating a given set of genetics was the European design, but the breeders of corn took a different approach from ancient times to present day, they allowed the corn to freely cross - and they saved corn from all ears, not just the big ones.  The result is that there are hundreds of different corn varieties available for a huge  variety of different ways to cook and eat it! 

Corn unshelled on the right, bowl of Red Bread seed center and the
empty cobs, already shelled on the left.
I was gifted with some ears of Mohawk Red Bread Corn from Rowan White a few years back.  I grew it out, got a nice harvest and hung onto the seed, stored it somewhat indifferently until last month when I was asked if I had any corn for a ceremony and I offered up the Mohawk Red Bread. 

It was making a whole circle in may ways.  The corn was now going back to Mohawk country to help Eliot Cowan, author of "Plant Spirit Medicine"do a ceremony. The woman who asked for the corn seed had met Eliot through his book, which was stocked in that book store because I asked for them to stock it as it was supplementary reading for my Botany class.  Now the lot of us had come together for a ceremony that brought this wonderful corn out of California back to upper New York state.

Pulling the corn seeds out of storage was a mystical experience.  The seed was no longer fresh, so my instructions were to plant more seeds than he needed just to ensure a good stand of seed.

I didn't have time to give these seeds a "germ test" (see my other article, Are Those Seeds Any Good, Mister? for some back ground on this). 

I brought out my corn sheller and tried my best to NOT just take the good looking kernels from good looking cobs.  I tried to emulate the corn growers and I tried to shut my internal neediness for a stab at perfection.  

A corn sheller.  This one is sized for popcorn, but it
was the right size for my Red Bread Corn too!
These seeds were put into a quart glass canning jar to sit in the freezer for three days.  At that time, they'll be reintroduced to the ambient temperature and I will get a germ test done.  Here's hoping I didn't give Eliot bad seeds!